Email LinkedIn People with lower self-esteem don’t feel good about presenting themselves authentically on the social networking website Facebook, according to new research published in Computers in Human Behavior.“Facebook is a rich site for research, enabling various forms of user engagement, but also considerable information exposure. Previous evidence in the social media literature indicates that Facebook is indeed a double-edged sword where engagement with the platform can positively or negatively influence users’ subjective well-being (SWB),” said Wonseok (Eric) Jang, an assistant professor at Texas Tech University and corresponding author of the study.“Studies have found that some forms of social support (e.g., the ‘Like’ button or supportive comments) from Facebook friends results in a greater degree of SWB, whereas other research has documented that when Facebook users adopt a comparative mindset, engagement with Facebook lowers SWB via feelings of envy,” Jang said. Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Pinterest Share “Due to these conflicting patterns, we were interested in examining whether the type of self-presentation strategy that users adopt on the platform influences what they get out of Facebook use, particularly if psychological rewards derived from engaging with the medium depend on one’s level of self-esteem.”The researchers examined two different ways that people can portray themselves on social networking websites: true self-presentation and strategic self-presentation. In the former, people provide an honest reflection of themselves and their life. In the latter, people selectively disclose only positive content to create a more favorable impression of themselves.In the study, 278 Facebook users were instructed to post content reflecting their true selves or strategic selves to Facebook before completing a scientific questionnaire.The researchers found that true self-presentation was associated with greater happiness after posting to Facebook only for high self-esteem users, not for low self-esteem users. Strategic self-presentation, on the other hand, made both high and low self-esteem users happy.“Our findings suggest that users with low self-esteem may use Facebook as an effective platform to enhance their sense of SWB by highlighting their most desirable characteristics,” Jang told PsyPost. “In general, low self-esteem individuals are reluctant to express their positive characteristics to others because they are not confident about their image and perceive themselves as less socially attractive than people with high self-esteem.”“In the context of Facebook, we found that people perceive the social media platform as a relatively safe environment because users can determine their friends and control what they share. The opportunities for embarrassment are thus reduced compared to in-person interactions, which are more unpredictable. Low self-esteem individuals may thus use Facebook as a platform to share aspect of themselves including their most desirable and positive characteristics to enhance their attractiveness and, in turn, heighten their SWB.”The study has some limitations.“It is not yet clear whether the gain in SWB we are seeing for low self-esteem users are enduring or disappear rapidly,” Jang explained. “Facebook users may enhance their level of SWB right after posting new messages or images but such benefits may decay over time, or even quite quickly.”“Future research should examine whether Facebook use has short- or long-term effects on users’ SWB and other positive outcomes. It would be especially interesting to examine whether such effects are determined by the type of self-presentation strategy (e.g., presenting a true self vs. presenting a strategic self) that users adopt while interacting with others.”“At this troubled time for Facebook and other social media platforms, we think investigating long-term outcomes from regular and consistent use of social media should be prioritized,” Jang added. “At present, there is still a limited understanding of whether the effects of Facebook use on user well-being are short-lived or enduring.”“Such insight could have important implications for broader public attitudes toward these growing avenues of social influence. Thus, scholars should incorporate longitudinal designs into their social media research and consider sustained influence on user psychology.”The study, “Self-esteem moderates the influence of self-presentation style on Facebook users’ sense of subjective well-being“, was authored by Wonseok (Eric) Jang, Erik Bucy, and Janice Cho.
Share on Facebook Email Anxieties about one’s close relationships are associated with aversion towards pattern deviancy, according to new research published in the European Journal of Social Psychology.“I’ve always been fascinated with objects, experiences, and situations that are irregular, abnormal, and break the pattern of what we are used to. I’ve consistently found that people tend to feel negatively about such ‘deviant’ stimuli. The obvious next question was to ask where these negative attitudes towards deviancy come from,” explained study author Anton Gollwitzer, a PhD Candidate at Yale University.Two initial surveys of 239 participants found a link between attachment anxiety and aversion toward pattern deviancy. People who agreed with statements such as “My desire to be very close sometimes scares people away” and “I often worry that my partner doesn’t really love me” tended to also say that broken patterns of geometric shapes made them feel uncomfortable, anxious, or annoyed. Pinterest LinkedIn Share on Twitter The researchers then conducted an experiment with another 333 individuals, which found that participants who were asked to recall a relationship where they felt anxiously attached tended to have heightened aversion towards broken geometric patterns compared to participants who were asked to recall a relationship where they felt comfortable and secure.A second experiment with 501 participants replicated the findings with a different measure of pattern deviancy aversion. Instead of being asked to evaluate patterns of geometric shapes, the participants were simply asked how they felt “about things that break a pattern, are out of line, and are disordered.”“Anxiety in terms of our social relationships can have a far-reaching impact on our lives, including nonsocial outcomes. Although we tend to think of our social and nonsocial attitudes as independent, our social experiences can actually alter the way we more generally approach objects, experiences, and situations,” Gollwitzer told PsyPost.Future research could address why the association between attachment anxiety and aversion toward pattern deviancy exists.“Is the link between anxious attachment and disliking broken patterns functional in some way? For instance, do unstable social relationships serve as a signal for dangerous irregularities in the environment? If true, then anxious attachment may heighten people’s dislike of broken patterns to help them avoid these harmful irregularities,” Gollwitzer said.The study, “Anxious Attachment as an Antecedent of People’s Aversion Towards Pattern Deviancy“, was authored by Anton Gollwitzer and Margaret S. Clark. Share
Over a recent 15-year period, close to 1,500 US travelers a year were hospitalized for treatment of malaria acquired overseas, far more than were treated for other travel-related diseases, according to a study published yesterday on the eve of World Malaria Day.In related news, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced yesterday that a pilot program for administering the world’s first malaria vaccine to young children will be conducted in Ghana, Kenya, and Malawi starting next year.Imported cases cost $555 millionMalaria transmission in the United States was stopped in the 1950s, but a steady stream of travelers are bringing the disease home with them, suggesting that many travelers are not taking adequate precautions, according to the study published in the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (AJTMH).Researchers looked for malaria cases in hospitalization discharge records in the 2000 to 2014 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, according to the report. They estimated there were 22,029 malaria-related hospitalizations over the 15 years, or 4.88 per million population, with 4,823 severe cases and 182 in-hospital deaths.”It appears more and more Americans are traveling to areas where malaria is common and many of them are not taking preventive measures, such as using anti-malarial preventive medications and mosquito repellents, even though they are very effective at preventing infections,” Diana Khuu, PhD, MPH, lead author of the study, said in an AJTMH news release. She is a scientist at the University of California, Los Angeles.The findings showed that malaria-linked hospitalizations, averaging 1,489 per year, were far more common than hospitalizations for most other travel-related diseases, according to the release. For example, dengue fever, which is common in Latin America, accounted for 259 hospitalizations per year over the same period.The malaria patients were hospitalized for an average of 4.36 days, at an average cost of $25,789, the report said. The total cost of the cases over the 15 years came to about $555 million.The burden fell disproportionately on patients who were male, black, or 25 to 44 years old, the study found. Plasmodium falciparum malaria—the most deadly type—accounted for most of the hospitalizations, and August was the month with the most cases.Since about 69% of all malaria patients need hospital treatment, the scientists estimated that about 2,100 people in the United States have malaria each year, according to the release.Khuu commented that mosquitoes capable of carrying malaria are common in parts of the United States, and that increases in the number of travelers coming home with the disease increase the risk of re-establishing the disease in the country. But the study found no significant change in the rate of malaria hospitalizations over the study period.Malaria vaccinations planned in AfricaMeanwhile, plans to give the new malaria vaccine, called RTS,S, to children in parts of Ghana, Kenya, and Malawi were announced yesterday by the WHO’s Regional Office for Africa. The vaccine was developed to protect young children from P falciparum malaria.The pilot program will assess whether the vaccine’s protective effect in children 5 to 17 months old, shown in phase 3 testing, can be replicated in real life, the WHO said. Specifically, the program will test the feasibility of delivering the required four doses of RTS,S, the vaccine’s potential role in reducing childhood deaths, and its safety in routine use.WHO officials describe the vaccine as a complementary tool that could be added to the core package of WHO-recommended measures for preventing malaria, including insecticide-treated bed nets, spraying indoor walls with insecticides, and preventive medicines for pregnant women and young children.Ghana, Kenya, and Malawi were chosen for the program because they have high coverage with treated bed nets, good malaria and immunization programs, high malaria burdens, and participation in the RTS,S phase 3 trials, the WHO said.RTS,S was developed by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) and is the first malaria vaccine to succeed in a phase 3 trial, the WHO noted. In 2015, two WHO advisory groups recommended pilot vaccination programs in three to five settings in sub-Saharan Africa.Several non-governmental global health agencies are partnering to provide $49.2 million for the first phase of the pilot program (2017 to 2020), which will be complemented by in-kind contributions from the WHO and GSK, the WHO said.WHO cites progress, challengesIn other malaria news, the WHO yesterday reported progress and big remaining challenges in the battle against the disease. The agency said the rate of new malaria cases fell by 21% globally from 2010 to 2015, and death rates fell by 29% in the same 5-year period. In sub-Saharan Africa, which bears 90% of the malaria burden, cases and death rates fell by 21% and 31%, respectively.Still, in 2015 the global malaria toll was 429,000 deaths and 212 million new cases, with one child dying from malaria every 2 minutes, the WHO said.The agency’s long-term malaria strategy calls for reducing cases and deaths by 90% and eliminating the disease in at least 35 countries by 2030. Interim 2020 targets call for 40% reductions in cases and death rates and for eliminating malaria in at least 10 countries.Funds for malaria prevention, researchOther malaria news related to World Malaria Day included announcements about grants for malaria prevention and research:The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria said today it would provide more than $242 million over 3 years to continue the battle against malaria in Cambodia, Thailand, Myanmar, Laos, and Vietnam. The grant will be the group’s largest regional allocation and the first with the specific goal of eliminating the disease in a specific region. The step continues the fund’s Regional Artemisinin-resistance Initiative, launched in 2013.The US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) announced late last week it would provide about $9 million in first-year funding for seven malaria research centers around the world. The awards will go to three new and four existing centers that work in 14 countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The 7-year awards continue NIAID’s 2010 program that created the International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMRs) in regions where malaria is endemic.See also:Arp 24 AJTMH abstractApr 24 AJTMH press releaseApr 24 WHO-Africa press release on vaccination programApr 24, 2015, CIDRAP News story “First malaria vaccine shows promise despite efficacy drop-off”Oct 23, 2015, CIDRAP News story “WHO experts urge gradual rollout of malaria vaccine”Apr 24 WHO press release on malaria progress and challenges
Three cases in Curry County. Two of the infected individuals are students who were last on school property Oct. 2. The other infected individual is a staff member who was last on school property Oct. 6. All staff members and the parents and guardians of all students in the affected school have been notified of the positive cases. One case in Santa Fe County. The infected individual is a staff member who was last on school property Oct. 2. All staff members and the parents and guardians of all students in the affected school have been notified of the positive case. Three cases in Doña Ana County. Two of the infected individuals are staff members who were last on school property Sept. 24 and Sept. 25. The other infected individual is a student who was last on school property Oct. 7. All staff members and the parents and guardians of all students in the affected school have been notified of the positive cases. One case in Sandoval County. The infected individual is a student who was last on school property Oct. 5. All staff members and the parents and guardians of all students in the affected school have been notified of the positive case. One case in Hidalgo County. The infected individual is a student who was last on school property Sept. 24. All staff members and the parents and guardians of all students in the affected school have been notified of the positive case. One case in Eddy County. The infected individual is a staff member who was last on school property Sept. 24. All staff members and the parents and guardians of all students in the affected school have been notified of the positive case. Three cases in Rio Arriba County. The infected individuals are students who were last on school property Oct. 6. All staff members and the parents and guardians of all students in the affected school have been notified of the positive cases. One case in Valencia County. The infected individual is a student who was last on school property Oct. 2. All staff members and the parents and guardians of all students in the affected school have been notified of the positive case.All “close contacts” will be informed of the positive case(s) and instructed to quarantine for 14 days. Affected classrooms and facilities will be cleaned and disinfected. Staff must be tested if symptomatic or a “close contact;” however, staff members will not be required to present a negative test result in order to return to work. Symptomatic staff may return to work after 10 days plus 24 hours after the fever is gone and COVID-19 symptoms have improved. Asymptomatic staff who have been “close contacts” may return to work after a 14-day quarantine.The PED has collected this data since Aug. 17; since then, 285 total cases have been reported in 150 schools. Of those, 195 have been staff members and 90 have been students. Since schools began operating in the hybrid mode Sept. 8, 166 cases have been reported in 109 schools, including 112 staff members and 54 students.For additional information about COVID-19 safety in schools, visit: https://bit.ly/SafeSchoolsNM. One case in McKinley County. The infected individual is a staff member who was last on school property Oct. 8. All staff members and the parents and guardians of all students in the affected school have been notified of the positive case. One case in Sierra County. The infected individual is a student who was last on school property Oct. 2. All staff members and the parents and guardians of all students in the affected school have been notified of the positive case. NMPED News:SANTA FE — The Public Education Department announced Friday 18 new positive cases of COVID-19 in the last 24 hours. Rapid response has been initiated, and all pertinent information has been verified with the schools and school districts. The following new cases have been reported: Two cases in Chaves County. The infected individuals are staff members who were last on school property Oct. 2 and Oct. 6. All staff members and the parents and guardians of all students in the affected school have been notified of the positive cases.
Would you like to read more?Register for free to finish this article.Sign up now for the following benefits:Four FREE articles of your choice per monthBreaking news, comment and analysis from industry experts as it happensChoose from our portfolio of email newsletters To access this article REGISTER NOWWould you like print copies, app and digital replica access too? SUBSCRIBE for as little as £5 per week.
BUNYIP CFA, in conjunction with other local brigades and the SES, held an Emergency Services Day on Sunday at the…[To read the rest of this story Subscribe or Login to the Gazette Access Pass] Thanks for reading the Pakenham Berwick Gazette. Subscribe or Login to read the rest of this content with the Gazette Digital Access Pass subscription.