Consuming violent media linked to 13x surge in violent dreams

first_imgPinterest LinkedIn The violent and sexual media you consume during the day may infiltrate your dreams at night, new research suggests.People who reported consuming violent media within 90 minutes of bedtime were 13 times more likely to have a violent dream that night, the study found. Those viewing sexual media were six times more likely to have a sex-related dream.The study of more than 1,000 Turkish residents also found that the more violent media content they reported consuming on a regular basis, the more often they said they had violent dreams in general. Share Share on Facebookcenter_img Share on Twitter Email The same link was found between sexual media content and sexual dreams, although the connection wasn’t as strong.“The media we consume can have an impact on us even when we’re sleeping,” said Brad Bushman, co-author of the study and professor of communication and psychology at The Ohio State University.“We knew our violent and sexual media consumption had an impact on our waking lives. Now we have evidence of how it may influence our dreams.”The study is published online in the journal Dreaming. Bushman conducted the study with Jan Van den Bulck, a professor of communication studies at the University of Michigan; and Yakup Çetin of Fatih University and Ömer Terzi of Yildiz Technical University, both in Turkey.The study involved 1,287 people aged 10 to 60 who completed a survey about their media consumption and their dreams. About half the sample were students at schools in Istanbul. The remainder were adults recruited from social networking sites that discussed media.All participants were asked whether they had viewed any violent or sexual media content within 90 minutes of going to bed the night before the study, and whether they had any violent or sexual dreams that night.Slightly less than half of participants (45 percent) reported consuming violent media before bed that night, whereas slightly less than one-quarter reported exposure to sexual media content.Whether they had consumed violent or sexual media content was not associated with whether they dreamed that night, findings showed.But the fact that violent and sexual media use was related to a huge increase in related dreams showed the power media may have on our sleeping lives, Bushman said.“The magnitude of the increase in violent and sexual dreams linked to media consumption was surprising,” he said.The study also aimed to examine how overall media use was linked to dream content.Participants were asked the number of hours they spent consuming media (including TV, internet, DVDs, movies, video games and music) on any devices on weekdays and on weekends.Next, they were asked to rate whether the media they consumed contained violence and whether it contained sex on a scale of 1 (never) to 5 (always).They were then asked whether they dreamed and whether their dreams included violent content and sexual content. Again, they rated how often on a scale of 1 to 5.Overall, 67 percent of participants said they dreamed at least sometimes.More than 80 percent of participants said they were exposed to violent media content at least sometimes, whereas about half said they were exposed to sexual media content at least sometimes.About 80 percent of those surveyed said they had violent dreams sometimes, whereas slightly less than half said they had sexual dreams sometimes.The researchers found that overall media use was a significant predictor of more frequent dreaming, as was the frequency of exposure to violent media.So who had the most frequent violent dreams overall? Results showed that exposure to violent media was the stronger predictor, although people who reported more overall media exposure and more sexual media exposure also reported somewhat more violent dreams.As for sexual dreams, those who reported the most also tended to have consumed more sexual media. But the link between sexual media and sexual dreams wasn’t as strong as that between violent media and violent dreams.“Whether we looked at overall media use or media intake for just one day, the result was the same: The media we consume is linked to what we dream about,” Van den Bulck said.The results can’t reveal the direction of causality between dreams and media use, Bushman noted.“It is at least possible that people who have more violent or more sexual dreams are more likely to seek out that content during the day. Another possibility is that causality may go both ways, or that some other factor is related to both media consumption and dream content.“But I do believe that the most plausible explanation is that the media we consume influences our dreams,” Bushman said.Çetin said the results may be at least somewhat different for people in other countries, noting previous research has shown that media use and dream associations differ for people of varied cultural background.The results suggest one obvious recommendation for those who are troubled by their violent or sexual dreams, according to Bushman.“It would be good to avoid media with violent and sexual content, especially right before bed.”last_img read more

Track renewals completed for Chicago – St Louis upgrade

first_imgUSA: Governor of Illinois Pat Quinn joined officials from Union Pacific and Amtrak in Granite City on September 22 to mark the completion of track renewals on UP’s Chicago – St Louis route, marking ‘a significant milestone’ in the programme to upgrade the route for passenger services to operate at up to 175 km/h.‘The work done today will help residents get to their destinations quickly and efficiently for years to come’, said Quinn. ‘I am proud that our state is leading the way on this transportation trend of the future’.The programme is currently on schedule to reduce the journey time of 5 h 30 min between Chicago and St Louis by 30 min at the end of 2015, and by a further 30 min by the end of 2017. By the end of 2015, more than two-thirds of the route will have been upgraded for 175 km/h operation, currently available on the 24 km between Dwight and Pontiac.In addition to track renewals, the programme has involved upgrading 300 level crossings, with gates installed at farm and pedestrian crossings. Work is due to begin later this year to resignal the route with Positive Train Control, and UP is also building or extending passing loops at 13 locations.‘Working together with the Illinois Department of Transportation and the Federal Railroad Administration, we have made great strides on this important public-private partnership’, said Donna Kush, UP Vice-President, Public Affairs, for the Northern Region. ‘Our engineering team has produced some very impressive numbers since this project started in 2010’, laying 792 480 m of rail, 650 000 concrete sleepers and 1∙18 million tonnes of ballast.The State of Illinois is contributing $400m towards the project, as a match to the $1∙3bn it has received from the federal government. Deliveries of new diesel locomotives from Siemens and passenger coaches from Nippon Sharyo are due to begin in summer 2016.last_img read more

Rights holder doubts Sunwolves will help grow rugby in Asia

first_imgSingapore – The Sunwolves’ entry into Super Rugby is unlikely to grow the game around Asia, according to the sport’s new rights owner in the region who believes showcasing more local action online will have a greater impact.The Tokyo-based franchise, which will also play matches in Singapore, began the Southern Hemisphere competition with a 26-13 home defeat against South Africa’s Lions on Saturday after a tumultuous preseason spent trying to assemble a team. GET THE BEST OF THE JAPAN TIMES The expansion into Asia is expected to increase the revenues of tournament organizer SANZAR, but New Zealander Tim Martin, who has scooped up the rights to show Super Rugby matches in 23 Asian countries, wondered what else a Japanese entrant brought.“I don’t think the Sunwolves will do a huge amount for Asian rugby,” he told Reuters in an interview in Singapore this week after securing the rights deal.“I think they will do a lot for Japanese rugby but they won’t do a lot for Malaysian rugby. I don’t see how those dots join.”Martin, a former advertising executive, made waves when his Coliseum Sports Media snapped up the rights to show English Premier League soccer matches in New Zealand using his online platform in 2013.He took a bold leap then for a fledgling start-up — albeit backed by a U.S.-based billionaire — but believes Japan would have been better off taking a conservative approach to growing the game after the World Cup win over South Africa last year.“Why leap into Super Rugby, which is the hardest, most competitive rugby competition in the world,” he said.“The Sunwolves could be a disaster, I hope not and I don’t think they will be but they could. Nobody wants to watch a team get whipped.”As well as showing the Sunwolves and Super Rugby around Asian countries, he also bagged Rugby Championship matches, European internationals and domestic action from England, France, South Africa and New Zealand among others.He admitted the $14.99-a-month subscription could prove too costly outside the expat-heavy markets of Hong Kong and Singapore and did not expect many people in Myanmar or Bangladesh to subscribe and watch the English league final.But he said his online model meant no increased cost for running matches in multiple countries and opened doors to the inquisitive few in Bhutan and beyond.He believed adding local rugby to his portfolio would help attract audiences and showcase a pathway to the elite, adding he also planned to make some All Black internationals free to view.“I think we have to make rugby bigger in Malaysia and Singapore and Korea and I think that’s about getting younger people into it and access to more content and all that stuff,” he said.With rugby’s inclusion in the Olympics this year, the sport is tipped for big growth in playing numbers.Martin said the number of Asian unions had doubled to 32 in the last 10 years and that there were 400,000 registered players in Asia — outside of Japan.“I reckon rugby in the region can become a significant thing. It’s right on the cusp,” he said.He said he wanted to eventually grow from 23 countries to 200, leaving the sport’s traditional bases, like New Zealand and England, alone and showing rugby online to new audiences around the world where television companies have overlooked the game.Asia, though, with its young, tech-obsessed population that could easily access his platform, was first priority. He said New Zealand and the bigger unions had failed to maximize their name by selling individual rights in different markets like he has.“There are a whole bunch of fragmented unions. Its chaotic, we think there is a role for an aggregate,” he said.“It will help turbo-charge the game’s growth.” IN FIVE EASY PIECES WITH TAKE 5 KEYWORDScenter_img Super Rugby, Sunwolves RELATED PHOTOS The Sunwolves’ Akihito Yamada (right) tackles Jaco van der Walt of the Lions during the Sunwolves’ Super Rugby debut at Prince Chichibu Memorial Ground last Saturday. | REUTERSlast_img read more