Study: Unhappiness intensifies the avoidance of frequent losses

first_imgLinkedIn PsyPost: Why were you interested in this topic?Yechiam: I guess my interest was aroused by a rather weird finding in decision science that people who are induced to have negative affect (e.g., by seeing a sad movie) tend to take more risk. To me, this was non-intuitive, as I felt that when a person is sad or upset she would tend to shy away from the possibility of getting more negative repercussions by taking additional risk — being more sensitized due to her current negative feeling.Indeed, in pain research it has been repeatedly observed that those in a negative mood avoid pain and have higher pain thresholds.What should the average person take away from your study?Turns out people do prefer to avoid frequent negative events when they are upset. So they avoid risks with frequent negative penalties. But they don’t mind being exposed to risk when it’s the kind that most of the time gives positive rewards. Therefore, negative mood does not lead to more sensitivity to the overall negative penalty but to its frequency – with frequent penalties being avoided more.This is also consistent with the findings that negative mood is sometimes associated with drug use and binging — these can be risky alternatives, but most of the time these activities provide positive rewards. Hence, these activities are not avoided by those with a negative mood.Another interesting finding of the current study concerns the well known phenomena that people are generally over-sensitive to frequent small losses. For instance, in behavioral experiments people don’t like gambling machines of the type that give a loss of $1 with 90% and a gain of $10 with 10%. Even though this machine is profitable on average, the common bad outcomes wash out the rarer positive ones. As it turns out, for individuals who report very high positive affectivity this tendency does not emerge: they are not over-sensitive to frequent negative penalty. By contrast, in individuals with low affectivity this tendency is aggravated.Are there any major caveats? What questions still need to be addressed?The findings used a laboratory study with small monetary penalties. It would be interesting to examine whether these findings also bear on people’s behavior in naturally occurring settings. For instance, do happier people explore more – and is this the result of being able to tolerate the very frequent hurdles that exploration may bring with it?The study, “Unhappiness Intensifies the Avoidance of Frequent Losses While Happiness Overcomes It“, was also co-authored by Ariel Telpaz, Stas Krupenia, and Anat Rafaeli. Share on Twitter Our level of happiness can affect our willingness to withstand frequent monetary losses, according to new research published in Frontiers in Psychology.The two-part study of 250 college students used the Iowa gambling task to uncover that unhappy individuals tended to avoid choices that resulted in frequent but minor losses. Instead, unhappy individuals tended to opt for choices that resulted in larger but rarer losses. Happier individuals, on the other hand, tended to be more willing to tolerate frequent losses if they led to positive net outcomes.PsyPost interviewed the study’s corresponding author, Eldad Yechiam of the Israel Institute of Technology. Read his responses below: Sharecenter_img Email Share on Facebook Pinterestlast_img read more

All-District 1, Division II soccer teams

first_imgPremier Diamond BoutiqueHong Kong’s first lab-grown diamond empirePremier Diamond Boutique|SponsoredSponsoredUndoInstant Voice TranslatorInstant Voice Translator (43 Languages) Takes Hong Kong By StormInstant Voice Translator|SponsoredSponsoredUndoPerfect-Dating.comAre You Ready to Meet Cool Guys in Tung Chung?|SponsoredSponsoredUndoStanChart by CNBC CatalystBlockchain Is Changing the Game for Trade Financing. Here’s How It’s Driving Future Global Trade.StanChart by CNBC Catalyst|SponsoredSponsoredUndoStrategyCombatIf you own a Computer, then you have to play this Game. No Install.StrategyCombat|SponsoredSponsoredUndoDating.comWhere do attractive singles find each other in Tung Chung?|SponsoredSponsoredUndo GIRLSFIRST TEAMForward — Shelby Plunkett, Benton, Sr.; Katy Jade Cunningham, North DeSoto, Jr.; Emily Henderson, North DeSoto, So. Midfield — Madeline Mays, Loyola, Jr.; Sydney Kethley, Loyola, So.; Catherine Roemer, Loyola, So.; Rebecca Mays, Loyola, Fr.; Abby Lauterbach, Benton, So.; Ashlie Christian, North DeSoto, Sr.; Emily Frye, Minden, Fr. Defense — Destiny Cardozier, North DeSoto, So.; Baileigh Howard, Benton, Sr.; Chelsea Rangel, Benton, Sr.; Grace Weldon, Loyola, Jr.; Ryan Barham, Loyola, Sr. Goalkeeper — Alexandra Peters, Fr., Loyola.DISTRICT MVP — Bailey Freeman, Jr., LoyolaOFFENSIVE MVP — Anna Brown, Jr., LoyolaCO-DEFENSIVE MVP — Madeline Bodden, Jr., Loyola; Mattilyn Reeder, Jr., LoyolaCOACH OF THE YEAR — Mark Matlock, LoyolaSECOND TEAMForward — Morgan Payne, Benton, Sr.; Courtney Humphries, North DeSoto, So.; Alex Cole, North DeSoto, Sr. Midfield — Taylor Anderson, Sr., Loyola; Elizabeth Bryan, Loyola, Fr.; Hannah Wied, Loyola, Jr.; Kaitlyn Sikes, Benton, Fr.; Jenny Cox, Benton, Jr.; Brittany Furrow, North DeSoto, So.; Kaitlyn Kendrick, Minden, Sr. Defense — Kaitlin Kilcrease, Minden, Sr.; Emily McConnell, North DeSoto, Sr.; Rosalyn Smith, North DeSoto, Sr.; Madison Parker, North DeSoto, So.; Kayla Laws, Benton, Sr.; Bridget Brown, Benton, Sr.; Shannon Anderson, Loyola, Fr.; Renee Lyles, Loyola, Fr. Goalkeeper — Emily Cecil, North DeSoto, Sr.; Cara Davlin, Fr., North DeSotoHONORABLE MENTIONMinden — Bailey Hassell. Benton — Kirsten Basco, Hannah Easter, Piper Flood. North DeSoto — Enondria Thompson. Loyola — Marie Marcalus. Note: The All-District teams are selected by the district’s coachesBOYSFIRST TEAMForward — Ethan Whitehead, Benton, Sr.; Clifton Coleman, Loyola, Jr.; Aapo Alenius, North DeSoto, Sr. Outside Mids/Wings — Sam Vickrey, Benton, So.; Clayton Bantle, Loyola, So. Center Mids — Josue Mancayo, North DeSoto, Jr.; Andy Nguyen, Loyola, Sr.; Peter Agdestein, Minden, Sr. Defender — JB Mercer, Benton, Jr.; Daniel Ferris, Loyola, Sr.; Dayton Waller, Loyola, Sr.; Wilson Hosler, Minden; Micah Bottoms, North DeSoto, Jr. Goalkeeper — Matthew Flanagan, Loyola, Sr.OVERALL MVP — Harrison Caruthers, Loyola, Sr.OFFENSIVE MVP — Dillon Rogers, Benton, Sr.CO-DEFENSIVE MVP — Edwin Lopez, Benton, Sr.; Sam deBerardenis, Sr.COACH OF THE YEAR — Trey Woodham, LoyolaSECOND TEAMMicael Vitacca, Loyola; Nick Bowers, Benton; Omar Mijarez, North DeSoto; Mason Barnes, North DeSoto, Ethan Parks, Benton; Matthew Vitacca, Loyola; Cole Grimes, Benton; Ryan Mutchler, Benton; Austin Barnes, North DeSoto, Daniel Valcho, Benton; Dakota West, North DeSoto.HONORABLE MENTIONLoyola — Hunter Hoogland, Andrew Lewis. Robert Gaiennie. Benton — Rayne Duque, Bailey Grimes. Minden — Hunter Sandlin, Austin Sumner. Northwood — Greg Carper, Fred Robinson, Dylan Oliver. North DeSoto — Cade Castillo.last_img read more