Pinterest Share on Twitter Patients taking psilocybin to treat depression show reduced symptoms weeks after treatment following a ‘reset’ of their brain activity.The findings come from a study in which researchers from Imperial College London used psilocybin – the psychoactive compound that occurs naturally in magic mushrooms – to treat a small number of patients with depression in whom conventional treatment had failed.In a paper, published today in the journal Scientific Reports, the researchers describe patient-reported benefits lasting up to five weeks after treatment, and believe the psychedelic compound may effectively reset the activity of key brain circuits known to play a role in depression. Email Share on Facebook Share Comparison of images of patients’ brains before and one day after they received the drug treatment revealed changes in brain activity that were associated with marked and lasting reductions in depressive symptoms.The authors note that while the initial results of the experimental therapy are exciting, they are limited by the small sample size as well as the absence of a control group – such as a placebo group – to directly contrast with the patients.Dr Robin Carhart-Harris, Head of Psychedelic Research at Imperial, who led the study, said: “We have shown for the first time clear changes in brain activity in depressed people treated with psilocybin after failing to respond to conventional treatments.“Several of our patients described feeling ‘reset’ after the treatment and often used computer analogies. For example, one said he felt like his brain had been ‘defragged’ like a computer hard drive, and another said he felt ‘rebooted’. Psilocybin may be giving these individuals the temporary ‘kick start’ they need to break out of their depressive states and these imaging results do tentatively support a ‘reset’ analogy. Similar brain effects to these have been seen with electroconvulsive therapy.”Over the last decade or so, a number of clinical trials have been conducted into the safety and effectiveness of psychedelics in patients with conditions such as depression and addictions, yielding promising results.In the recent Imperial trial, the first with psilocybin in depression, 20 patients with treatment-resistant form of the disorder were given two doses of psilocybin (10 mg and 25 mg), with the second dose a week after the first.Nineteen of these underwent initial brain imaging and then a second scan one day after the high dose treatment. Carhart-Harris and team used two main brain imaging methods to measure changes in blood flow and the crosstalk between brain regions, with patients reporting their depressive symptoms through completing clinical questionnaires.Immediately following treatment with psilocybin, patients reported a decrease in depressive symptoms – corresponding with anecdotal reports of an ‘after-glow’ effect characterised by improvements in mood and stress relief.Functional MRI imaging revealed reduced blood flow in areas of the brain, including the amygdala, a small, almond-shaped region of the brain known to be involved in processing emotional responses, stress and fear. They also found increased stability in another brain network, previously linked to psilocybin’s immediate effects as well as to depression itself.These findings provide a new window into what happens in the brains of people after they have ‘come down’ from a psychedelic, where an initial disintegration of brain networks during the drug ‘trip’, is followed by a re-integration afterwards.Dr Carhart-Harris explained: “Through collecting these imaging data we have been able to provide a window into the after effects of psilocybin treatment in the brains of patients with chronic depression. Based on what we know from various brain imaging studies with psychedelics, as well as taking heed of what people say about their experiences, it may be that psychedelics do indeed ‘reset’ the brain networks associated with depression, effectively enabling them to be lifted from the depressed state.The authors warn that while the initial findings are encouraging, the research is at an early stage and that patients with depression should not attempt to self-medicate, as the team provided a special therapeutic context for the drug experience and things may go awry if the extensive psychological component of the treatment is neglected. They add that future studies will include more robust designs and currently plan to test psilocybin against a leading antidepressant in a trial set to start early next year.Professor David Nutt, Edmond J. Safra Professor of Neuropsychopharmacology and director of the Neuropsychopharmacology Unit in the Division of Brain Sciences, and senior author of the paper, added: “Larger studies are needed to see if this positive effect can be reproduced in more patients. But these initial findings are exciting and provide another treatment avenue to explore.” LinkedIn
The midfielder has made his only international appearance in 2015, and due to his great form for West Ham United, he’s caught the Seleção’s eyes once again.His comeback was a subject for Seleção SporTV this week, where the player was interviewed and talked a little about his feelings around returning to the team.“It is a very good feeling, a dream come true, a lot of work that I have been doing and collecting these fruits,” Felipe Anderson told Sportv. “It’s not only this year that I have this focus, it’s been for long time that I have been working to reach this moment and this is an achievement that makes me very happy and very motivated.”Journalist André Rizek pointed out that Felipe Anderson is West Ham’s top scorer, although he wasn’t much of a scorer during his time at Santos, when manager Muricy Ramalho would always demand that from him.“Professor Muricy always pressured me very much for not entering the box, asked me why I did not get in the box to score goals. I knew I had to improve on that, but of course I always had a style of creating plays. But I worked hard on this issue of arriving and making the final move to receive the ball. Of entering the box and receiving the cross.“And now I’m accomplishing this feat of scoring several goals and being a top scorer of the team. I believe that with him I learned a lot, knowing that it’s important not only to make assists, but also contribute directly with goals for the team. It’s important for an attacking player to score goals. And this year things are happening, the goals are coming out, everything I learned from him I have put into practice throughout my career.”Embed from Getty ImagesThen the pundits, who admittedly don’t watch much of the Premier League, have asked Felipe Anderson in which positions has he been playing in so they could analyse what can he bring to the team. The player has claimed he can play as an advanced midfielder or as a winger, and explained that he has changed positions after signing for West Ham.Manuel Pellegrini’s tactical decisions saw the Brazilian change sides.“I played a lot of time in Italy, five years, always on the right. This year now at West Ham, I talked to the manager and he said he wanted me to play on the left, that he saw me very well there. And it worked. So I think I feel free to play in every attacking position.”by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksTrending TodayForge of Empires – Free Online GameIf You Like to Play, this City-Building Game is a Must-Have. No Install.Forge of Empires – Free Online GameUndoPremier Diamond BoutiqueHong Kong’s first lab-grown diamond empirePremier Diamond BoutiqueUndoRaid: Shadow Legends | Free DownloadEven Non-Gamers Are Obsessed With This RPG Game (It’s Worth Installing!)Raid: Shadow Legends | Free DownloadUndoDating.comFind out where single guys are hanging out in Tung ChungDating.comUndo熱門話題小心會瘦過快…網友推爆:「真的瘦的超誇張!」熱門話題UndoHero WarsGetting this Treasure is impossible! Prove us wrong!Hero WarsUndoPerfect-Dating.comThousands of successful men are looking for women in Tung ChungPerfect-Dating.comUndoSmart Tech TrendOver 50? You Have to Try Those Revolutionary Glasses!Smart Tech TrendUndoInstant Voice TranslatorGenius Japanese Invention Allows You To Instantly Speak 43 LanguagesInstant Voice TranslatorUndo Felipe Anderson is finally back to the Brazilian national team.
Left back: Patrice Evra v Luke Shaw – An easy win for Evra this round. The Frenchman was excellent in the title winning season, playing 34 games and chipping in with four goals and five assists. That is far better than Shaw, who, despite being Uniteds best left-back, played just nine games in 2016/17. Daley Blind, Matteo Darmian and Marcos Rojo all filled in at left-back, and there are no guarantees Shaw will start 2017/18 as first-choice in the position. United must long for a player of Evras quality right now. 11 11 Centre midfield: Michael Carrick v Paul Pogba – Carrick was heralded as one of Uniteds most important players as they eased to the Premier League title, with his composed style of play making the entire team tick. He played 36 of 38 games, ending the season with four assists and an impressive pass completion rate of 88 per cent. Pogba started the 2016/17 campaign in poor form, but grew in stature as the months wore on. He is expected to reach new heights next year, and finally establish himself as a world class midfielder. The France star just loses out on this comparison to Carrick, simply due to how important he was to winning the league. He even earned a place in the PFA Team of the Year. Right back: Rafael v Antonio Valencia – Both Rafael in 2012/13 and Valencia right now are consistent defenders who do the simple things well but are hardly going to wow the crowds. Valencia especially is one of the most consistent players in the Premier League at this moment in time, and he narrowly claims this round. However, Rafael did enjoy a fantastic campaign in 2012/13, scoring three goals and creating three more in 28 appearances. Centre midfield: Tom Cleverley v Ander Herrera – A few years before the title-winning season, Cleverley was an exciting attacking midfielder with an eye for goal and a real creative spark. However, he was played in holding midfield by Ferguson and became one of the dullest players in the Premier League. His season was average at best, and it is no surprise he has since left Old Trafford to play for Aston Villa, Everton and, currently, Watford. Herrera has grown into one of the leagues best midfield players since his arrival in Manchester, and he enjoyed a superb individual season in 2016/17. Few players have the same skillset as the Spaniard, and he is a much, much better player than Cleverley was five years ago. Centre back: Jonny Evans v Eric Bailly – Enjoying arguably his best season in a United shirt, Evans was consistently excellent in his 24 league appearances in 2012/13. His form disappeared after Fergusons exit and he had to move to West Brom to revive his career, but he was superb in helping the Red Devils win the title. However, Bailly was similarly superb in his first season in England, and he just edges out Evans for establishing himself as one of the best defenders in the league after such a short length of time. Right attacking midfield: Antonio Valencia v Henrikh Mkhitaryan – Valencia was United Player of the Year in 2011/12. In 2012/13 his form fell off a cliff and the Ecuadorian winger was shockingly poor. He forgot how to beat a man and how to cross a ball, and was eventually dropped from the first-team for important games. Mkhitaryan started his career slowly at Old Trafford, but grew into a vital player throughout 2016/17. He will start the new campaign a guaranteed starter, and far exceeds the level Valencia was playing at in 2012/13. 11 11 11 11 Manchester United are going all out to win the Premier League title this coming season.Having not managed to claim English football’s biggest trophy since Sir Alex Ferguson’s last year at Old Trafford, Jose Mourinho is trying to build a squad capable of challeging for the title.The 2017/18 campaign will be the fifth season since Ferguson’s final triumph in 2012/13, but how do the Red Devils compare between that year and right now.talkSPORT take a player-by-player look at both Man United teams to see if Mourinho’s current line up is better than Ferguson’s final one.You can see the comparison by clicking the right arrow, above… 11 Left attacking midfield: Ashley Young v Anthony Martial – Similar to Valencia, Young struggled in the 2012/13 campaign after a strong season the year before. He failed to score a single goal and only provided three assists, and ended up losing his role as a guaranteed starter. Martial is facing a similar situation right now. He has struggled to recapture the form of his debut season, and has been dropped by Jose Mourinho more often than not. However, the Frenchman beats out Young, as even when not playing well he delivers a goal threat. In fact, in 2016/17, Martial scored four goals and registered six assists despite his poor form. Centre attacking midfield: Wayne Rooney v Juan Mata – It was a poor season for Rooney in 2012/13, as he started the season out the team through injury, and ended it out the team due to a severe lack of form. He handed in a second transfer request that summer, and only stayed at United following David Moyes arrival by signing a huge new contract. Mata, on the other hand, remains one of the best playmakers in the Premier League. He scored six goals and created three more last term, and will likely start the 2017/18 campaign as a key creative player for Jose Mourinho. This one is an easy win for Mata. 11 Goalkeeper: David de Gea (age 21-22) v David de Gea (age 27) – click the right arrow to see the player-by-player comparison of the two Man United squads – De Gea was starting to establish himself as one of the best goalkeepers in the Premier League in 2012/13, growing from his questionable debut season to put in a series of impressive performances. At the end of the campaign, he was voted into the PFA Team of the Year, and kept 11 clean sheets in 28 appearances. However, he has continued to develop and is now a world class goalkeeper, far beyond the level he was five years ago. 11 11 11 Centre back: Rio Ferdinand v Victor Lindelof – Ferdinand was coming to the end of his career in 2012/13, but still put in a series of impressive performances at the heart of the United defence earning a place in the PFA Team of the Year. He failed to emulate the heights of his earlier career, but is ranked greater than new Red Devils signing Lindelof due to the Swedes lack of experience in England. The 23-year-old is sure to grow into a world class defender, and has shown his ability in domestic Portuguese football and European competition. United fans are hoping he can follow in the footsteps of Ferdinand at Old Trafford. Centre forward: Robin van Persie v Romelu Lukaku – On the back of scoring 30 goals for Arsenal the previous season, United bought Van Persie for the 2012/13 campaign – and he did not disappoint. The Dutchman scored 26 goals, winning the Golden Boot, and playing a key role in the Red Devils title success. Lukaku has been brought to Old Trafford to have a similar sort of impact, though he is a level below Van Persie was at the time of his transfer. He has never reached the 30-goal mark in his career, and has not played for a club at the highest level.