Email LinkedIn People with lower self-esteem don’t feel good about presenting themselves authentically on the social networking website Facebook, according to new research published in Computers in Human Behavior.“Facebook is a rich site for research, enabling various forms of user engagement, but also considerable information exposure. Previous evidence in the social media literature indicates that Facebook is indeed a double-edged sword where engagement with the platform can positively or negatively influence users’ subjective well-being (SWB),” said Wonseok (Eric) Jang, an assistant professor at Texas Tech University and corresponding author of the study.“Studies have found that some forms of social support (e.g., the ‘Like’ button or supportive comments) from Facebook friends results in a greater degree of SWB, whereas other research has documented that when Facebook users adopt a comparative mindset, engagement with Facebook lowers SWB via feelings of envy,” Jang said. Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Pinterest Share “Due to these conflicting patterns, we were interested in examining whether the type of self-presentation strategy that users adopt on the platform influences what they get out of Facebook use, particularly if psychological rewards derived from engaging with the medium depend on one’s level of self-esteem.”The researchers examined two different ways that people can portray themselves on social networking websites: true self-presentation and strategic self-presentation. In the former, people provide an honest reflection of themselves and their life. In the latter, people selectively disclose only positive content to create a more favorable impression of themselves.In the study, 278 Facebook users were instructed to post content reflecting their true selves or strategic selves to Facebook before completing a scientific questionnaire.The researchers found that true self-presentation was associated with greater happiness after posting to Facebook only for high self-esteem users, not for low self-esteem users. Strategic self-presentation, on the other hand, made both high and low self-esteem users happy.“Our findings suggest that users with low self-esteem may use Facebook as an effective platform to enhance their sense of SWB by highlighting their most desirable characteristics,” Jang told PsyPost. “In general, low self-esteem individuals are reluctant to express their positive characteristics to others because they are not confident about their image and perceive themselves as less socially attractive than people with high self-esteem.”“In the context of Facebook, we found that people perceive the social media platform as a relatively safe environment because users can determine their friends and control what they share. The opportunities for embarrassment are thus reduced compared to in-person interactions, which are more unpredictable. Low self-esteem individuals may thus use Facebook as a platform to share aspect of themselves including their most desirable and positive characteristics to enhance their attractiveness and, in turn, heighten their SWB.”The study has some limitations.“It is not yet clear whether the gain in SWB we are seeing for low self-esteem users are enduring or disappear rapidly,” Jang explained. “Facebook users may enhance their level of SWB right after posting new messages or images but such benefits may decay over time, or even quite quickly.”“Future research should examine whether Facebook use has short- or long-term effects on users’ SWB and other positive outcomes. It would be especially interesting to examine whether such effects are determined by the type of self-presentation strategy (e.g., presenting a true self vs. presenting a strategic self) that users adopt while interacting with others.”“At this troubled time for Facebook and other social media platforms, we think investigating long-term outcomes from regular and consistent use of social media should be prioritized,” Jang added. “At present, there is still a limited understanding of whether the effects of Facebook use on user well-being are short-lived or enduring.”“Such insight could have important implications for broader public attitudes toward these growing avenues of social influence. Thus, scholars should incorporate longitudinal designs into their social media research and consider sustained influence on user psychology.”The study, “Self-esteem moderates the influence of self-presentation style on Facebook users’ sense of subjective well-being“, was authored by Wonseok (Eric) Jang, Erik Bucy, and Janice Cho.
MUST-READ STORIES• UCLA’s Bryce Alford plays the toughest position — coach’s son. The Bruins, who start Saturday’s action against 14th-seeded UAB, take their cues from the younger Alford.• Leading scorer, Uber driver Matt Stainbrook gives Xavier a lift. The Musketeers are once again finding postseason success thanks to their massive man in the middle.• Notre Dame-Butler: One goes to Sweet 16, one goes back to Indiana. It’ll be a Hoosier State showdown when the Fighting Irish and Bulldogs meet Saturday.• Armour: Cincinnati finds success with coach on sideline. Mick Cronin’s impact on the Bearcats extend beyond that of a traditional coach.• The NCAA tournament bracket cheat sheet you know you need. USA TODAY Sports and For The Win provide a one-stop shop for the NCAA tournament with all the analysis and insight you’ll need to win your office pool.• Coaches turn hot seats luke warm with NCAA tournament bids. Tubby Smith calls it “The Dip.” It is that turning point in a coach’s tenure when the trajectory of the program, at least in terms of public perception, steers downward, whispers from critics turn to shouts and Internet rumors spread like wildfire.• Five reasons Kentucky won’t win it all. Now that it looks as if our prediction is careening into the wall, it’s time to start steering into the skid.• The seven teams that can beat Kentucky. FTW’s Chris Chase lists the only seven teams that can end Kentucky’s undefeated season.PHOTOS: The highlights from the Round of 64***WATCH: The latest NCAA tournament videos12:10 p.m. (11) UCLA vs. (14) UAB / South regionCBS. Verne Lundquist, Jim Spanarkel, Allie LaForce.2:40 p.m. (1) Kentucky vs. (8) Cincinnati / Midwest regionCBS. Verne Lundquist, Jim Spanarkel, Allie LaForce.5:15 p.m. (2) Arizona vs. (10) Ohio State / West regionCBS. Kevin Harlan, Reggie Miller, Dan Bonner, Rachel Nichols.6:10 p.m. (6) Xavier vs. (14) Georgia State / West regionTNT. Andrew Catalon, Steve Lappas, Jamie Erdahl.7:10 p.m. (1) Villanova vs. (8) NC State / East regionTBS. Brian Anderson, Steve Smith, Dana Jacobson.7:45 p.m. (4) Georgetown vs. (5) Utah / South regionCBS. Kevin Harlan, Reggie Miller, Dan Bonner, Rachel Nichols.8:40 p.m. (4) North Carolina vs. (5) Arkansas / West regionTNT. Andrew Catalon, Steve Lappas, Jamie Erdahl.9:40 p.m. (3) Notre Dame vs. (6) Butler / Midwest regionTBS. Brian Anderson, Steve Smith, Dana Jacobson. The Round of 32 at the NCAA tournament tips off Saturday just after 12 ET.Here is everything you need to know for the March Madness coverage of eight more games.Take a look at the full bracket and print it here.
Chelsea are reported to be battling with Arsenal for the signing of yet another player.This time Porto’s teenage striker Andre Silva is said to be a target for both clubs, who have been linked with several other players including Real Madrid’s Sami Khedira.The Sunday People say Silva, 19, wants move to England when his contract expires in the summer.AdChoices广告It is claimed that Arsenal boss Arsene Wenger is leading a race to sign him and that Chelsea manager Jose Mourinho has also registered an interest.Meanwhile, Real’s former Chelsea boss Carlo Ancelotti has played down reports that Khedira could move to Stamford Bridge or Arsenal in January.Khedira’s contract is due to expire at the end of the season and there has been speculation that he could be sold when the transfer window reopens.But the Spanish press quote Ancelotti as saying: “We still have until June to renew his contract.“I think the club intends to renew the deal and if he does not want to then he will remain here until to the end of season.”Follow West London Sport on TwitterFind us on Facebook
LOS ANGELES, (Reuters) – The Los Angeles Lakers will pay tribute to Kobe Bryant today when the team plays its first game since the NBA great died, although details of what that will entail remain unclear. Bryant perished along with his 13-year-old daughter Gianna and seven others when the helicopter they were travelling in crashed in foggy weather on a hillside northwest of Los Angeles on Sunday.“I’m gonna let that play out tomorrow night, let you guys see it,” Lakers coach Frank Vogel told reporters yesterday when asked what tributes fans could expect to see when the team takes on the visiting Portland Trail Blazers.“I’ve been briefed on some of the things that we’re going to see. But I’m going to let that play out tomorrow night.” The Lakers postponed a game scheduled for Tuesday night against the Los Angeles Clippers after news of the accident broke and it is unclear when that game will be made up.Practice on Thursday began with some flag football on an outside field near the team’s practice facility in what Vogel called “therapeutic” Southern California sunshine.“We are striking a balance of trying to make us feel good,” Vogel said. “Laughter is always a good remedy for something like this when it’s appropriate. “We’ve had some of that at today’s workout outside … it’s not the first time we’ve done that but it does feel good to be out there, you know, just a little bit of a change up.“It was really just a warm-up, once we came inside it was business, get back to business and lock into the work.”Vogel said the team is beginning to get back to normal but admitted staying focused on the task at hand on Friday will be challenging amid tributes to Bryant, who played 20 seasons with the Lakers, winning five championships and millions of fans. “I would imagine it probably makes it a little harder than an ordinary game, with all the emotions and that stuff, but we shouldn’t do it any other way,” he said.“It’s the right thing to do, you know it will be an important night for our franchise and for Laker nation.”