Email LinkedIn People with lower self-esteem don’t feel good about presenting themselves authentically on the social networking website Facebook, according to new research published in Computers in Human Behavior.“Facebook is a rich site for research, enabling various forms of user engagement, but also considerable information exposure. Previous evidence in the social media literature indicates that Facebook is indeed a double-edged sword where engagement with the platform can positively or negatively influence users’ subjective well-being (SWB),” said Wonseok (Eric) Jang, an assistant professor at Texas Tech University and corresponding author of the study.“Studies have found that some forms of social support (e.g., the ‘Like’ button or supportive comments) from Facebook friends results in a greater degree of SWB, whereas other research has documented that when Facebook users adopt a comparative mindset, engagement with Facebook lowers SWB via feelings of envy,” Jang said. Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Pinterest Share “Due to these conflicting patterns, we were interested in examining whether the type of self-presentation strategy that users adopt on the platform influences what they get out of Facebook use, particularly if psychological rewards derived from engaging with the medium depend on one’s level of self-esteem.”The researchers examined two different ways that people can portray themselves on social networking websites: true self-presentation and strategic self-presentation. In the former, people provide an honest reflection of themselves and their life. In the latter, people selectively disclose only positive content to create a more favorable impression of themselves.In the study, 278 Facebook users were instructed to post content reflecting their true selves or strategic selves to Facebook before completing a scientific questionnaire.The researchers found that true self-presentation was associated with greater happiness after posting to Facebook only for high self-esteem users, not for low self-esteem users. Strategic self-presentation, on the other hand, made both high and low self-esteem users happy.“Our findings suggest that users with low self-esteem may use Facebook as an effective platform to enhance their sense of SWB by highlighting their most desirable characteristics,” Jang told PsyPost. “In general, low self-esteem individuals are reluctant to express their positive characteristics to others because they are not confident about their image and perceive themselves as less socially attractive than people with high self-esteem.”“In the context of Facebook, we found that people perceive the social media platform as a relatively safe environment because users can determine their friends and control what they share. The opportunities for embarrassment are thus reduced compared to in-person interactions, which are more unpredictable. Low self-esteem individuals may thus use Facebook as a platform to share aspect of themselves including their most desirable and positive characteristics to enhance their attractiveness and, in turn, heighten their SWB.”The study has some limitations.“It is not yet clear whether the gain in SWB we are seeing for low self-esteem users are enduring or disappear rapidly,” Jang explained. “Facebook users may enhance their level of SWB right after posting new messages or images but such benefits may decay over time, or even quite quickly.”“Future research should examine whether Facebook use has short- or long-term effects on users’ SWB and other positive outcomes. It would be especially interesting to examine whether such effects are determined by the type of self-presentation strategy (e.g., presenting a true self vs. presenting a strategic self) that users adopt while interacting with others.”“At this troubled time for Facebook and other social media platforms, we think investigating long-term outcomes from regular and consistent use of social media should be prioritized,” Jang added. “At present, there is still a limited understanding of whether the effects of Facebook use on user well-being are short-lived or enduring.”“Such insight could have important implications for broader public attitudes toward these growing avenues of social influence. Thus, scholars should incorporate longitudinal designs into their social media research and consider sustained influence on user psychology.”The study, “Self-esteem moderates the influence of self-presentation style on Facebook users’ sense of subjective well-being“, was authored by Wonseok (Eric) Jang, Erik Bucy, and Janice Cho.
Having trouble with your parallel parking? How about parking a ship in a specifically designated lot with little room for maneuvering, where scratching your vessel a tad is not an option?Navigating a vessel through limited space is a challenging task, requiring nerves of steel, even though this video may hint otherwise.The video shows an aerial time-lapse of the United Kingdom-flagged tanker Galway Fisher entering Irish Port of Galway on Monday, August 17th as the tanker perfectly slides through the harbor.Galway Harbour is located in the area of Galway City, it has a history dating back to the 10th Century and has just announced the final plans of its proposed new port that would enable the port to handle bigger ships. World Maritime News Staff; Video: Autonomous Aerials Ireland
A decision to fit ETCS Level 2 on DB’s main line between two major cities in south Germany means that three separate signalling and train control systems will operate in parallel on one route,DEUTSCHE Bahn has called tenders for supply and installation of ETCS Level 2 on its 171 km corridor between Nürnberg and München. Bids for the €35m project close in early July, and completion is planned by the end of 2009. Between Ingolstadt and München the route consists of tracks upgraded for trains to run at 200 km/h, but over the 89 km north of Ingolstadt a 300 km/h Neubaustrecke was opened in May 2006. The entire route is fitted with DB’s LZB inductive train control system which is mandatory for trains operating at speeds over 160 km/h.Despite this, DB is to equip the route with ETCS Level 2. Asked to explain, DB says that the route forms part of the Stockholm – Verona corridor designated by the EU in the ETCS migration strategy. As funding from the EU is conditional on the route meeting the requirements of the latest TSIs, the line has to be fitted with Level 2. There have been suggestions that the Federal Railway Office instructed DB to install Level 2 on the route, but EBA says this is not the case and that the requirement was part of an agreement with the European Commission.DB says the ETCS equipment will operate in parallel with the existing LZB – the two systems will remain separate, and trains running at 200 km/h or more will use one or the other system depending on the onboard equipment with which they are fitted.As the upgraded line between Ingolstadt and München is also used by trains running at less than 160 km/h, conventional lineside signals and associated train protection equipment will remain in place. This means that three separate signalling and train control systems will be operational on the same line.Asked what advantages Level 2 offers over LZB, DB points out that it is standard European equipment which will allow trains not fitted to operate with DB’s own signalling to use the line. In terms of safety and capacity, LZB and ETCS Level 2 are comparable, DB notes.DB has yet to decide how many vehicles will need to be fitted with ETCS to run over the line, and separate tenders will be called for supply of onboard equipment. On average 72 trains a day use the Neubaustrecke in each direction, with 120 trains a day each way on the upgraded section.DB has already installed Level 2 equipment on a section of the main line from Berlin to Halle and Leipzig. The 39 km northern section between Ludwigsfelde and Jüterbog was one of the national ERTMS test lines enjoying funding from the European Commission, but the 120 km southern section was funded nationally. Level 2 is also being installed on the 128 km route from Saarbrücken to Ludwigshafen as part of the TGV Est Europ?en programme. However, as 200 km/h will not be possible on the 33 km section between Kaiserslautern and Neustadt, Level 1 will suffice. The work will be completed by December 2008.
Since managers are feeling more confident with the run strength this year, dip netting for Kenai River sockeye has been extended to 24 hours per day through the end of the season July 31 (tomorrow at midnight). The sportsfishing bag limit for Kenai River sockeye has also been doubled. Begich: “It could be as high as 40% above forecast, if it ends up in the mid 30-ish, mid 30’s, 40-50% above forecast. And that’s not unusual. Anchor River was 100% over forecast. When it turns around, you don’t have any indication that it will turn around. It’s just because the fish survived well.” Commercial fishermen will likely continue into August with status quo management, according to Commercial Fisheries Management Biologist Pat Shields… King salmon counts have grazed the lower end of the goal for the past two years, with a few hundred fish over or under 15,000 counted at the sonar site. Shields: “The two possible changes that can occur in August to management of the East Side Set Net Fishery are as follows: first there is the 1% closure rule that applies separately to the Kasilof section and the Kenai and East Forelands sections. Second, if the Department projects that less than 22,500 late run Kenai River king salmon will escape, the East Side Set Net fishery is limited to no more than 36 hours of fishing time in August. The most recent projection for the spawning escapement for Kenai River late run king salmon was slightly more than 29,000.” Sportsfishing Management Biologist Robert Begich said the reason for the turnaround isn’t immediately clear… FacebookTwitterEmailPrintFriendly分享After three years of steep closures to protect late run Kenai River king salmon, the run could reach the upper end of its escapement goal this season, according to Department of Fish & Game projections. Drifters have reported a poor season this year, with the Kenai sockeye run posting only slow, steady numbers. Members of the Upper Cook Inlet Drift Association will gather for an emergency meeting next month to discuss this season’s management.
Statistics provided by fantasy football game Oulala highlight just how much Oscar has flourished in his central midfield position for Chelsea this season.Boss Antonio Conte’s decision to move Oscar into the role has produced outstanding results. AdChoices广告The Blues have opened the new Premier League campaign with three wins and a draw from their opening four games and sit second in the table – and Oscar has been a key figure in their excellent start to the season.Oulala’s statisticians have looked back at Oscar’s previous four seasons in the Premier League and have compared his per-game figures in seven key areas to his numbers from the opening four games of the current season.When it comes to passing and creativity, Oscar is averaging more successful passes per game (39) this season than he has in any of his previous campaigns.He is also averaging more forward passes (28), more key passes (2.3) and is creating more chances (2.5).The 25-year-old’s work-rate has also improved, as highlighted by his defensive stats.He is making more successful tackles (2.8) and blocks (0.3) than in any other season and his average of 0.8 interceptions per game was only bettered in 2012/13. Follow West London Sport on TwitterFind us on Facebook See also:The stats show Hazard must be player of the monthChelsea snap up two highly-rated youngstersChelsea youngsters beaten by SwindonChelsea expect Terry to be out for 10 daysSwindon v Chelsea U23s player ratingsLiverpool’s Lovren passed fit to return for Chelsea game