Share Share on Facebook LinkedIn “A second reason why it is important to be better able to explain political behavior is of a more normative nature. It is often asserted that the essence of politics is power and power relationships. From this point of view, it is important to understand what explains why some citizens are more politically active than others. Put differently, a better understanding of the reasons for political participation is a precondition for creating a more equal society,” Oskarsson said.Statistics Sweden, a government agency, maintains a database called the Multi-Generation Register that contains information on the biological parents of individuals. The database includes 10,717,814 non-adopted individuals and 155,865 adopted individuals.The researchers analyzed this data, along with additional information regarding educational attainment, income, occupational status and political candidacy, to examine the intergenerational transmission of political behavior. Overall, the probability of being a political candidate was about 2.3%. But among adopted individuals whose biological parents were candidates, the probability of being a political candidate jumped up to about 5%.“A first take-home point is that there is a strong parent–child transmission in the tendency to run for office. If you have a parent that ran for office, there is a much higher likelihood that you will also stand as a political candidate as an adult,” Oskarsson told PsyPost.“Second, and more importantly, this intergenerational transmission in political candidacy status reflects both social and genetic factors. We used a sample of adopted children and their biological and adoptive parents to investigate this.”“The results clearly suggest that having a biological parent who ran for office is a good predictor of the adoptee’s probability of running for office as adults, despite the fact that these children were adopted away early in life and have had no contact with their birth parents ever since. However, the results also indicate that adoptive parents’ political activity is a major source of intergenerational resemblance,” Oskarsson said.All scientific research includes some limitations — and this study is no exception.“Like other recent studies on the heritability of complex human behaviors this study takes a first important step by showing that political candidacy is caused by both social and genetic factors. However, it is even more important to take further steps and investigate how social and political traits are shaped by the interplay between genes and environment,” Oskarsson explained.“They arise when the type or magnitude of the effect of a genetic factor depends on the environmental conditions in which it is expressed. In our case we can suspect, for example, that a predisposition toward political engagement may only matter under the right environmental circumstances. However, the knowledge of how these so called gene-by-environment interactions actually work is currently limited: what genetic factors interact with what social, economic and political factors, and how?”The findings indicate that political candidacy may be a genetically influenced trait. However, any genetic influence is just one factor among many that contribute to an individual’s decision to run for public office.“It is important to note that our results do not signal genetic determinism. Our finding that biological parents’ behavior is a strong predictor of political candidacy among adoptees does not mean that there is direct causal link between a set of genetic factors and an individual’s propensity to run for office. Any genetic effect on a complex behavior such as running for office will undoubtedly be mediated by a large set of factors, some of which are malleable,” Oskarsson added.“It is also important to stress that omitting the genetic part of intergenerational transmission – that is, failing to take into account that we are not only raised by our parents, but we also inherit a combination of their DNA – neglects an integral part of the explanation of social and political traits because genetic differences between individuals not only add to social and environmental influences but also co-vary and interact with them in complex ways.”“Consequently, considering genetic influences by no means negates social influences, but rather provides an additional layer of explanation that can substantially improve our understanding of how they work. As such, it can also aid in developing more effective policies that deal with the social roots and consequences of social and political inequality,” Oskarsson said.The study, “It Runs in the Family: A Study of Political Candidacy Among Swedish Adoptees“, was authored by Sven Oskarsson, Christopher T. Dawes, and Karl-Oskar Lindgren. A new study on Swedish adoptees suggests that political candidacy is a heritable trait. The research, which appears in the journal Political Behavior, found that the likelihood of standing as a political candidate doubled if one’s parent had been a candidate.“My research interest in general concerns how human behavior, especially political behavior, is formed by the interplay between social and genetic factors,” explained study author Sven Oskarsson of Uppsala University and the Uppsala Center for Labor Studies.“A better understanding of these basic causes of differences in political behavior is fundamental for at least two reasons. The first is that politics and political activity is something that in a deeper sense is a characteristic of us as a species. Humans are, to quote Aristotle, political animals by nature. This means that a deeper understanding of how we think and act in political contexts is an important part of our understanding of ourselves.” Email Pinterest Share on Twitter
Cash-strapped law firms have been driven to obtaining professional indemnity insurance from unrated insurers this year, risking regulatory sanctions where an insurer becomes insolvent, a leading broker and the Law Society have warned. Unrated firms, listed by the Solicitors Regulation Authority, are those without a published credit and financial strength rating. With premiums from rated insurers remaining steady this year, unrated insurers have proved ‘an attractive option for smaller firms’, Martin Ellis, director of broker Prime Professions, told the Gazette. ‘Some of these firms are struggling financially and as a result reducing the cost of PII is a priority. ‘It is fair to say that most firms do not wish to insure with an insurer who has no recognised financial rating but some simply have no other viable option.’ The Law Society is increasingly concerned about the number of solicitors relying on unrated insurers, particularly this renewal season. Elliott Vigar, head of regulation at Chancery Lane, said: ‘This suggests both that, in some fundamental respects, the market in its current form is not working for a segment of the profession; and that a proportion of firms continue to make a purchasing decision based purely on price.’ The risk of insurer insolvency is real, Ellis’s fellow director Jake Fox said. Gibraltar and Ukraine-based insurer Lemma went into liquidation in October. Lemma did not insure any law firms in 2011-12, but historic claims for the five-year period in which it provided cover to the legal market will be affected. With reference to Lemma, Vigar added: ‘We are also considering further policy options to address what may constitute a significant future threat to firm viability and client protection.’ Replacement cover provided at short notice is likely to be more costly, Fox advised, further stretching struggling firms. Insurers’ final figures have not yet been collated for this year’s renewals season. Prime’s assessment of the market is based on the experience of the 1,000 or so firms for which the broker acts.
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Rugby Union You can sense the tension and anticipation in the air at the Crusaders’ Rugby Park base in Christchurch. It’s been an age since a Crusaders-Blues match has produced such a feeling, but Saturday night’s battle of the unbeatens in the Garden City has brought back feelings of old. ‘’It feels like that [the old days],’’ Crusaders assistant coach Scott Hansen said. Forget the fact the Blues haven’t beaten their arch rivals since 2014, and that it’s been 16 years since they tipped over the Crusaders in Christchurch. The Crusaders owning the Blues 24-11 in the head-to-head stakes can also be cast aside, because the red and blacks know full well it means nothing. That comes with the Blues’ resurgence under former Crusader Leon MacDonald, who is finally getting consistency in his second year in charge of the Auckland-based team. Including the pre Covid competition, they’ve won seven games on the bounce, with Super Rugby Aotearoa wins against the Hurricanes, Chiefs and Highlanders behind them in recent weeks. “There is a huge amount of respect for the Blues. They are a team with a lot of cohesion at the moment, awesome synergy in their game with attack and their defence,’’ Hansen said. ‘’They’re a big, physical team that are looking for big collisions. They have got a mindset around working teams into the ground. Our boys will need to be up for it, but they will.’’ It’s too early to label the match a competition decider, but the Crusaders, who beat the Blues 25-11 at Eden Park in February, have an opportunity to land a huge blow. Nabbing bonus points against the Highlanders and Hurricanes puts them in a position to pull as many as seven points clear at the top of the table heading into next week’s bye. On the other hand, should the Blues hand the Crusaders their first loss on home soil in almost four years, it could only result in a one-point lead on the ladder. ‘’It’s good for New Zealand Rugby, isn’t it? You’ve got teams that are competing, you’ve got players that are playing at the top-level, it’s awesome for NZ Rugby, it’s going to be a hell of a collision this weekend around mindset and intensity. Two teams undefeated, going for it,’’ Hansen said. Outside of the Crusaders’ 54-17 pasting of the Blues in Christchurch two years ago, the success-starved Blues have pushed the 10-times champions in recent years. They lost 19-11 at Orangetheory Stadium last season, and finished between two and nine points off the pace on four other occasions since 2016. “It’s been building,’’ Crusaders halfback Bryn Hall said. He’s been on both sides of the rivalry, having played for the Blues between 2013-2016, before joining the Crusaders and winning titles each of the past three years. Hall was rested last weekend, and took the opportunity to return home to Auckland for the first time since lockdown, visiting family and friends while the Crusaders beat the Highlanders 40-20 in Dunedin Recharged and ready to tackle a team which still includes many of his friends, Hall doesn’t think their improvement comes down to rocket science. – stuff
Following days of thrilling action Emuwnah Pross was crowned the inaugural champion of the iBet Supreme FIFA 20 ‘League of Champions’ e-Sports tournament, defeating Tevin Bremner Thursday evening in a hard-fought contest. In what was a virtual rematch of the 2018 UEFA Champions League final, Pross, who represented the famous white shirt of Spain’s Real Madrid, defeated Bremner and England’s Liverpool 3-1 to clinch the coveted title. Ironically, the match mirrored the identical score of the aforementioned 2018 grand finale.Pross won the first prize of $50,000, two pennyweights of gold, a trophy, a case of Monster Energy Drink and a special Church’s Chicken Meal. Bremner’s second prize was $25,000, a case of Monster Energy Drink and a Church’s Chicken meal.
The tournament is organized around the world, to give anyone a chance to compete in the international stage.The Homeless World Cup is a tournament where anybody around the world can enter and compete for free to qualify to the Finals.And for actor and activist Michael Sheen, it was a great idea to take it to Wales, where the tournament was celebrated this year.When you’re 50 years old and about to become a dad again, spending a small fortune on the football sounds, well, a little bit reckless.But when Michael Sheen cleared out his savings to mount a tournament he knew that he was investing wisely, in new lives for thousands of strangers.“It can play a massive part in helping people transform their lives, and bring some joy and hope when things seem at their worst,” he told The Mirror.“I believe in this so much that I put my hand in my pocket and put myself in a very difficult financial situation to make it happen.”“It’s about being welcomed into a team – a family – with a sense of belonging and that is hugely transformative,” he added.“Also, they are getting to represent their country – and I know how amazing that feels.”“I remember getting the letter telling me I had been selected to act in the National Theatre of Wales when I was 14,” he commented.Giggs is full of praise for Daniel James Manuel R. Medina – September 10, 2019 According to Wales national team manager Ryan Giggs, footballer Daniel James is unstoppable after he helped his team secure a victory against Belarus.“I can still feel the thrill, walking around with this secret, glowing knowledge that I was representing Wales. It had a huge effect on me.”“But I’ve also seen how football breaks down barriers in so many ways,” he added.“As an ambassador for UNICEF, I see people playing football in refugee camps and some of the harshest places in the world.”“It gives people a release, an escape and it gives them hope, a bit of joy,” Sheen concluded.Diwrnod 5⃣ yng Nghwpan y Byd DigartrefDay 5⃣ at the #HomelessWorldCup🎶Twti Ffrwti – @KIMHON420 #Cardiff2019HWC #MwyNaGêm #MoreThanAGame pic.twitter.com/vT3lWTa023— Homeless World Cup (@homelesswrldcup) July 31, 2019