New study finds evidence that political ambition can be genetically inherited from one’s parent

first_imgShare Share on Facebook LinkedIn “A second reason why it is important to be better able to explain political behavior is of a more normative nature. It is often asserted that the essence of politics is power and power relationships. From this point of view, it is important to understand what explains why some citizens are more politically active than others. Put differently, a better understanding of the reasons for political participation is a precondition for creating a more equal society,” Oskarsson said.Statistics Sweden, a government agency, maintains a database called the Multi-Generation Register that contains information on the biological parents of individuals. The database includes 10,717,814 non-adopted individuals and 155,865 adopted individuals.The researchers analyzed this data, along with additional information regarding educational attainment, income, occupational status and political candidacy, to examine the intergenerational transmission of political behavior. Overall, the probability of being a political candidate was about 2.3%. But among adopted individuals whose biological parents were candidates, the probability of being a political candidate jumped up to about 5%.“A first take-home point is that there is a strong parent–child transmission in the tendency to run for office. If you have a parent that ran for office, there is a much higher likelihood that you will also stand as a political candidate as an adult,” Oskarsson told PsyPost.“Second, and more importantly, this intergenerational transmission in political candidacy status reflects both social and genetic factors. We used a sample of adopted children and their biological and adoptive parents to investigate this.”“The results clearly suggest that having a biological parent who ran for office is a good predictor of the adoptee’s probability of running for office as adults, despite the fact that these children were adopted away early in life and have had no contact with their birth parents ever since. However, the results also indicate that adoptive parents’ political activity is a major source of intergenerational resemblance,” Oskarsson said.All scientific research includes some limitations — and this study is no exception.“Like other recent studies on the heritability of complex human behaviors this study takes a first important step by showing that political candidacy is caused by both social and genetic factors. However, it is even more important to take further steps and investigate how social and political traits are shaped by the interplay between genes and environment,” Oskarsson explained.“They arise when the type or magnitude of the effect of a genetic factor depends on the environmental conditions in which it is expressed. In our case we can suspect, for example, that a predisposition toward political engagement may only matter under the right environmental circumstances. However, the knowledge of how these so called gene-by-environment interactions actually work is currently limited: what genetic factors interact with what social, economic and political factors, and how?”The findings indicate that political candidacy may be a genetically influenced trait. However, any genetic influence is just one factor among many that contribute to an individual’s decision to run for public office.“It is important to note that our results do not signal genetic determinism. Our finding that biological parents’ behavior is a strong predictor of political candidacy among adoptees does not mean that there is direct causal link between a set of genetic factors and an individual’s propensity to run for office. Any genetic effect on a complex behavior such as running for office will undoubtedly be mediated by a large set of factors, some of which are malleable,” Oskarsson added.“It is also important to stress that omitting the genetic part of intergenerational transmission – that is, failing to take into account that we are not only raised by our parents, but we also inherit a combination of their DNA – neglects an integral part of the explanation of social and political traits because genetic differences between individuals not only add to social and environmental influences but also co-vary and interact with them in complex ways.”“Consequently, considering genetic influences by no means negates social influences, but rather provides an additional layer of explanation that can substantially improve our understanding of how they work. As such, it can also aid in developing more effective policies that deal with the social roots and consequences of social and political inequality,” Oskarsson said.The study, “It Runs in the Family: A Study of Political Candidacy Among Swedish Adoptees“, was authored by Sven Oskarsson, Christopher T. Dawes, and Karl-Oskar Lindgren. A new study on Swedish adoptees suggests that political candidacy is a heritable trait. The research, which appears in the journal Political Behavior, found that the likelihood of standing as a political candidate doubled if one’s parent had been a candidate.“My research interest in general concerns how human behavior, especially political behavior, is formed by the interplay between social and genetic factors,” explained study author Sven Oskarsson of Uppsala University and the Uppsala Center for Labor Studies.“A better understanding of these basic causes of differences in political behavior is fundamental for at least two reasons. The first is that politics and political activity is something that in a deeper sense is a characteristic of us as a species. Humans are, to quote Aristotle, political animals by nature. This means that a deeper understanding of how we think and act in political contexts is an important part of our understanding of ourselves.”center_img Email Pinterest Share on Twitterlast_img read more

Sparta shot down the Tábor region in the first preparatory match

first_imgAt the beginning of the summer training, the Spartans shot the newcomer of the second league Táborsko 5: 0 in Strahov. The Prague team decided four games in the first half due to a coronavirus pandemic behind closed doors. Matěj Polidar, a returnee from the guest, scored twice, and Ladislav Krejčí, Adam Karabec and Lukáš Juliš added after the goal. In addition, Adam Hložek did not convert to a penalty in the 10th minute. “I scored two goals, that’s fine, but otherwise I’m not completely happy. I’ve lost a lot of balloons, I have work to do,” stated for club television Polidar.“The match was the end of the fitness part of the training, next Tuesday we are leaving for the training camp in Austria. From that point of view, I’m glad that the boys played and that they clearly won against the running opponent. The result is very good, we could have scored more goals. there is something to build on, “ said Spartan coach Vaclav Kotal.In the first preparatory duel, he tried to place three defenders and placed a different eleven in each half. A stronger line-up started in the opening act, after the change mainly young men played and the goalkeeper in the Spartan jersey made the goalie Holec. The other two new players, Čelůstka and Minčev, have not yet jumped.“It’s important to be able to play both sets. I choose it according to the opponent, if he plays two attackers, it’s better to play with three stoppers.” Kotal said.Sparta was supposed to play in Strahov’s introductory preparatory match with Vltavín in a week, but due to the deteriorating epidemiological situation in Prague, the leadership canceled the duel.The coronavirus recently appeared in the Letenské third-league reserve, which had to be quarantined. According to the media, several players became infected at the Techtle Mechtle nightclub. The pre-league A-team did not come into contact with the patients.Sparta Prague – Taborsko 5: 0 (4: 0)Goals: 4. and 24. Polidar, 23. Krejčí, 35. Karabec, 55. Juliš. Sparta lineup: 1st half: Heča – Plechatý, Štetina, Lischka – Vindheim, Krejčí, Dočkal, Karabec, Polidar – Tetteh, Hložek. II. half: Holec – Vitík, Krajinský, Hanousek – Šilhart, Lukavský, Trávník, Fortelný, Plavšič – Juliš, Kozák. Coach: Kotal.last_img read more

Dutch design lab blends naturalistic and futuristic

first_img This Sept. 28, 2017 photo provided by the Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum, shows an Installation view of “Joris Laarman Lab: Design in the Digital Age,” in New York. (Matt Flynn/Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum via AP) This Sept. 28, 2017 photo provided by the Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum, shows an Installation view of “Joris Laarman Lab: Design in the Digital Age,” in New York. (Matt Flynn/Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum via AP) This Sept. 28, 2017 photo provided by the Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum, shows an Installation view of “Joris Laarman Lab: Design in the Digital Age,” in New York. (Matt Flynn/Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum via AP) This Sept. 28, 2017 photo provided by the Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum, shows an Installation view of “Joris Laarman Lab: Design in the Digital Age,” in New York. (Matt Flynn/Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum via AP) This Sept. 28, 2017 photo provided by the Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum, shows an Installation view of “Joris Laarman Lab: Design in the Digital Age,” in New York. (Matt Flynn/Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum via AP)center_img This Sept. 28, 2017 photo provided by the Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum, shows an Installation view of “Joris Laarman Lab: Design in the Digital Age,” in New York. (Matt Flynn/Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum via AP) Laarman and his team of computer scientists, engineers and craftsmen seem at first glance to get their inspiration from the past, with designs reminiscent of Art Nouveau or even rococo. “Gradient Lounge” is a generously sized chaise with voluptuous curves 3-D-printed from polyamide nickel and copper, with matching upholstery, 3-D-knit of silk, mercerized cotton and Merino wool. “Bridge Table,” the sleek show-stopper of aluminum and tungsten carbide that greets visitors in the main part of the exhibit, resembles a smooth, silver-colored tree, with four trunk-like legs that separate into branches and extend to support a gleaming, flat surface.But there’s nothing old-fashioned about these works.They are not inspired by nature so much as designed using actual mathematical principles of nature — algorithms drawn from plants, say, or multi-celled organisms. These algorithms are used to design the works created using 3-D printers or, in the case of the footbridge, using 3-D-printing robots invented by the team. Then the pieces are finished using a combination of high-tech and artisanal methods, such as binding the exteriors with nickel, copper or steel, or handcrafting elements out of wood.“The emphasis is on experimentation, and on looking to biology and physics for design inspiration,” explains Andrea Lipps, assistant curator of contemporary design at Cooper Hewitt, who oversaw the exhibit.Videos shown throughout the show help explain how the pieces were made and are crucial to understanding the works, since the techniques are so new, some of them only recently invented by the studio.“When people saw our exhibit in Holland, they got very emotional, and some of them even cried. The future can feel like a very scary place,” says Laarman, a soft-spoken 37-year-old who was in New York for the opening of the show.“Joris Laarman Lab: Design in the Digital Age” will remain on view at the Cooper Hewitt through Jan. 15. It will then travel to The High Museum of Art in Atlanta (Feb. 18-May 13) and the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston (June 17-Sept. 9). The show, organized by each museum with slightly different works, has been expanded and updated since it originated at the Groninger Museum, in Groningen, Holland, in 2015.Joris Laarman Lab, founded by Laarman in 2004 with filmmaker and partner Anita Star, uses processes as innovative as the designs themselves.“The waves of technology are accelerating rapidly,” Laarman says, referring to a timeline featured along one wall in the exhibit; it shows waves of technological advances alongside stock market rises and downturns, and includes moments in the foreseeable future, like the arrival of driverless cars. On the timeline, the industrial age has fallen away precipitously and the digital age is blasting off in new directions.Laarman is optimistic.“Digital technology is changing our lives at every level. It’s very exciting. No one really knows how this next phase is going to happen. But I think it may start a whole new wave of creativity,” he says.“Creativity is the one most important thing we can do as humans,” he adds. “This new technology will make it easier to make a living off creative ideas, and create a direct line between creators and the public.”There is a tension in Joris Laarman Lab’s work between technology and traditional craftsmanship, and between ornamentation and function.The studio’s Heat Wave Radiator (acquired by the Cooper Hewitt, with functioning examples available for purchase), is made of concrete and is designed to be installed on the wall. It resembles some kind of industrial ivy, with each twist and curlicue adding to its efficiency as a heater.Currently, Laarman’s studio is at work producing the stainless steel bridge across a footbridge in Amsterdam using its own “MX3D” production method, which allows for 3-D printing in midair using robots. The technology opens the door to enormous 3-D-printed construction projects.A newly completed section of the footbridge, which has a soft, nubby texture like that of a handwoven rug, is on view.“Biotechnology and artificial intelligence are taking us to a very new phase,” Laarman says. NEW YORK | The first U.S. museum exhibit devoted solely to the experimental and futuristic work of Dutch design studio Joris Laarman Lab is now on view at the Cooper Hewitt Smithsonian Design Museum here.The works — mainly furniture, along with an unusual radiator and a newly finished section of footbridge — tend to be curvy and organic in form, many resembling strange yet elegant life forms that have sprouted table legs and chair arms.last_img read more